Phân biệt âm vô thanh và hữu thanh
Trước khi đến với cách phát âm đuôi “ed”, ta cần nắm rõ khái niệm: âm vô thanh và âm hữu thanh.
– Âm vô thanh: khi nói, chạm tay vào cuống họng không thấy rung.
– Âm hữu thanh: khi nói, chạm tay vào cuống họng cảm thấy họng rung.
Trong cách phát âm đuôi “ed”, có 3 âm là /t/, /d/ và /id/, trong đó:
– /t/ là âm vô thanh.
– /d/ và /id/ là âm hữu thanh.
I. Cách đọc -ed là /id/
Đuôi "ed" được phát âm là /id/: Khi động từ có phát âm kết thúc là /t/ hay /d/.
– want /wɔːnt/ -> wanted /wɔːntɪd/
– need /niːd/ -> needed /niːdɪd/
I wanted to go to the supermarket because I needed to buy some chicken for dinner.
II. Cách đọc -ed là /t/
Đuôi "ed" được phát âm là /t/: Khi động từ có phát âm kết thúc là /s/, /f/, /p/, /ʃ/, /tʃ/, /k/ và những động từ có từ phát âm cuối là “s”.
– stop /stɑːp/ -> stopped /stɑːpt/
– cook /kʊk/ -> cooked /kʊkt/
I watched TV last night.
– dance /dæns/ -> danced /dænst/
– jump /dʒʌmp/ -> jumped /dʒʌmpt/
– laugh /læf/ -> laughed /læft/
– type /taɪp/ -> typed /taɪpt/
– watch /wɑːtʃ/ -> watched /wɑːtʃt/
III. Cách đọc -ed là /d/
Đuôi "ed" được phát âm là /d/ với những trường hợp còn lại.
– learn /lɜːrn/ -> learned /lɜːrnd/
– smell /smel/ -> smelled /smeld/
– appear /əˈpɪr/ -> appeared /əˈpɪrd/
Chú ý: Đuôi "ed" trong các động từ sau khi sử dụng như tính từ sẽ được phát âm là ɪd/ bất luận “ed” sau âm gì:
An aged man /ɪd/
A blessed nuisance /ɪd/
A dogged persistence /ɪd/
A learned professor – the professor, who was truly learned /ɪd/
A wretched beggar – the beggar was wretched /ɪd/
Nhưng khi sử dụng như động từ, ta áp dụng quy tắc thông thường:
He aged quickly /d/
He blessed me /t/
They dogged him /d/
He has learned well /d/
Luyện tập cách phát âm “ed”
Sau khi nắm được cách phát âm "ed" rồi thì bạn hãy thực hành với 3 câu chuyện ngắn sau đây. Bạn chỉ cần chọn 1 trong 3 câu chuyện này, luyện tập thật thành thạo rồi hãy chuyển qua câu chuyện khác. Chú ý là bạn phải đọc nhấn nhá cả âm điệu, mà không chỉ mỗi cách phát âm "ed".
The Fox and the Grapes
One afternoon, a fox was walking through the forest and spotted a bunch of grapes hanging from a lofty branch. “Just the thing to quench my thirst,” said the fox.
Taking a few steps back, the fox jumped and just missed the hanging grapes. Again, the fox took a few paces back and tried to reach them, but still failed.
Finally, giving up, the fox turned up his nose and said, “They’re probably sour anyway.” Then he walked away.
The Devoted Mother
A mother duck and her little ducklings were on their way to a lake one day. The ducklings were very happy following their mother and quack-quacking along the way.
All of a sudden, the mother duck saw a fox at a distance. She was frightened, and shouted, “Children, hurry to the lake. There’s a fox!”
The ducklings hurried towards the lake. The mother duck wondered what to do. Then she began to walk back and forth dragging one wing on the ground.
When the fox saw her, he became happy. He said to himself, “It seems she’s hurt and can’t fly! I can easily catch and eat her!” He ran towards her.
The mother duck ran, leading the fox away from the lake. The fox followed her. Now he wouldn’t be able to harm her ducklings. The mother duck looked towards her ducklings and saw that they had reached the lake. She was relieved, so she stopped and took a deep breath.
The fox thought that she was tired and he came closer, but the mother duck quickly spread her wings and rose up in the air. She landed in the middle of the lake and her ducklings swam to her.
The fox stared in disbelief at the mother duck and her ducklings. The mother duck had tricked him cleverly. Now he could not reach them because they were in the middle of the lake.
The Lion and the Mouse
Once when a lion, the king of the jungle, was asleep, a little mouse began running up and down on him. This soon awakened the lion, who placed his huge paw on the mouse, and opened his big jaws to swallow him.
“Pardon, O King!” cried the little mouse. “Forgive me this time. I shall never repeat it and I shall never forget your kindness. And who knows, I may be able to do you a good turn one of these days!”
The lion was so tickled by the idea of the mouse being able to help him that he lifted his paw and let him go.
Sometime later, a few hunters captured the lion, and tied him to a tree. After that they went in search of a wagon, to take him to the zoo.
Just then the little mouse happened to pass by. On seeing the lion’s plight, he ran up to him and gnawed away the ropes that bound him, the king of the jungle.
“Was I not right?” said the little mouse, very happy to help the lion.